Black moss and lichens on a weather beaten rock. Lichina pygmaea is a tufted, brown-black lichen which grows to around 1 cm in length. The species L.confinis is much shorter, around 5 mm. This species of lichen is hair-like and upright. These fruticose lichens have a central area of loose fungal hyphae, an outer cortex of compressed fungal hyphae and an entrapped band of algae (a form of cyanobacteria) in between. Spore-bearing structures form in small swellings at the tip.