The pollen and nectar of the flowers attract Halictid bees, masked bees (Hylaeus spp.), Crabronid wasps (Oxybelus spp. & others), paper wasps (Polistes spp.), the Five-banded Tiphiid Wasp (Myzinum quinquecinctum), Sphecid wasps, cuckoo wasps (Chrysididae), Syrphid flies, bee flies (Exoprosopa spp. & others), Tachinid flies, flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), Muscid flies, and small butterflies, including the endangered Karner Blue (Lycaeides melissa samulelis); see Robertson (1929) and others. Other insects feed on the sap, foliage, and other parts of Flowering Spurge. These species include the Euphorbia Bug (Chariesterus antennator), a flea beetle (Glyptina bicolor), and a monophagous aphid (Aphis pulchella); see Vestal (1913), Clark et al. (2004), and Hottes & Frison (1931). The polyphagous Potato Aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) also feeds on spurges (Euphorbia spp.). The seeds are an attractive source of food to some birds, including the Wild Turkey, Greater Prairie Chicken, Bobwhite Quail, Mourning Dove, and Horned Lark (Martin et al., 1951/1961). Flowering Spurge is rarely eaten by mammalian herbivores because of the toxic white latex in its foliage.