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These are female flowers, called 'catkins', of Goat willow, about 4-5 cm tall, and standing erect on branches. They appear before leaves. Male flowers (not pictured here) appear at the same time but on a different tree.
This is very common tree/shrub in forests in and around Jura mountains, and it can be found on slopes of this range and in valleys. Here, I stumbled upon it during our latest weekend hike through the mixed forest on slopes of Jura mountain range.