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Plants with showier flowers attract an abundance of bees, wasps, butterflies, skippers, moths, and various kinds of flies. Bee visitors include honey bees, bumblebees, long-horned bees (Melissodes spp.), leaf-cutting bees (Megachile spp.), and plasterer bees (Colletes spp.). These insects suck nectar from the flowers; bees also collect pollen. The caterpillars of the butterfly Nathalis iole (Dainty Sulfur) feed on the foliage. The caterpillars of several species of moths also feed on Bidens spp., including Epiblema otiosana (Bidens Borer Moth), Cirrhophanus triangulifer (Goldenrod Stowaway), Condica mobilis (Mobile Groundling), and Condica confederata (The Confederate). Other insect feeders the leaf beetles Calligrapha bidenticola and Calligrapha californica, the fruit fly Icterica seriata, and several aphid species.