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Black mangrove

Avicennia germinans


Black mangrove is distinguished by the presence of numerous short breathing roots called pneumatophores that project from the ground in a dense thicket below and around the tree. The pneumatophores usually grow to a height of just above the highest water level. It has a green flattened fruit, dark to blackish bark and thick leaves that are shiny green on the top and grayish on the underside. You can usually see tiny salt crystals on the leaves. Black mangroves extrude salt from glands in their leaves.


Bushy evergreen tree found in tidal flats and other shallow saltwater areas throughout tropical and subtropical climates. Black mangrove is the most wide-ranging mangrove in Florida.


Black mangrove is important in low-lying coastal areas because it helps stabilize the shoreline by trapping debris and detritus in its roots. It also provides feeding, breeding, and nursery grounds for a great variety of fish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The wood is strong, heavy and hard and is used for posts, fuel and marine construction. The barks contains tannins that are used for leather production. Bees make a very high quality honey from black mangrove nectar.

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Karen Hileman
Spotted by
Karen Hileman

Cocoa Beach, Florida, USA

Spotted on Aug 12, 2012
Submitted on Aug 19, 2012

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