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Holes of some 3cm in diameter. The hole goes deep, across all layers of bark and enters sapwood beneath. There were four or more holes of the same size on this tree, all rather low, starting at some 1m of height.
Seen on few trees, none of them in really good conditions, in a mixed forest (oak, beech, spruce and fir) on a rolling hills at the feet of Jura range; Geneva lake valley.
Difficult to say which woodpecker could be the author here, as number of species were listed in lowland and hill forests in Geneva lake valley and are candidates, for example Great, Middle and Lesser spotted woodpeckers, as well as Black and Grey-headed Woodpecker...