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Scots Pine

Pinus sylvestris


Pinus sylvestris is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 35 m in height[6] and 1 m trunk diameter when mature, exceptionally to 45 m tall and 1.7 m trunk diameter[citation needed] and on very productive sites (in Estonia, there are some 220 year old trees that are 46 metres tall in the forests of Järvselja[7]). The bark is thick, scaly dark grey-brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on the upper trunk and branches. The habit of the mature tree is distinctive due to its long, bare and straight trunk topped by a rounded or flat-topped mass of foliage. The lifespan is normally 150–300 years, with the oldest recorded specimens (in Sweden and Norway) just over 700 years.[2][3][4][8] The shoots are light brown, with a spirally arranged scale-like pattern. On mature trees the leaves ('needles') are a glaucous blue-green, often darker green to dark yellow-green in winter, 2.5–5 cm long and 1–2 mm broad, produced in fascicles of two with a persistent grey 5–10 mm basal sheath; on vigorous young trees the leaves can be twice as long, and occasionally occur in fascicles of three or four on the tips of strong shoots. Leaf persistence varies from two to four years in warmer climates, and up to nine years in subarctic regions. Seedlings up to one year old bear juvenile leaves; these are single (not in pairs), 2–3 cm long, flattened, with a serrated margin.[2][4][8] Mature open cones and seeds - MHNT The seed cones are red at pollination, then pale brown, globose and 4–8 mm diameter in their first year, expanding to full size in their second year, pointed ovoid-conic, green, then grey-green to yellow-brown at maturity, 3-7.5 cm in length. The cone scales have a flat to pyramidal apophysis, with a small prickle on the umbo. The seeds are blackish, 3–5 mm long with a pale brown 12–20 mm wing; they are released when the cones open in spring 22–24 months after pollination. The pollen cones are yellow, occasionally pink, 8–12 mm long; pollen release is in mid to late spring


Scots Pine is the only pine native to northern Europe, forming either pure forests or alongside Norway Spruce, Common Juniper, Silver Birch, European Rowan, Eurasian Aspen and other hardwood species. In central and southern Europe, it occurs with numerous additional species, including European Black Pine, Mountain Pine, Macedonian Pine, and Swiss Pine. In the eastern part of its range, it also occurs with Siberian Pine among other trees


Scots Pine is an important tree in forestry. The wood is used for pulp and sawn timber products. A seedling stand can be created by planting, sowing or natural regeneration. Commercial plantation rotations vary between 50–120 years, with longer rotations in northeastern areas where growth is slower. In Scandinavian countries, Scots Pine was used for making tar in the pre-industrial age. There are still some active tar producers, but mostly the industry has ceased to exist.[8][9] The pine has also been used as a source of rosin and turpentine. The wood is pale brown to red-brown, and used for general construction work. It has a dry density of around 470 kg/m3 (varying with growth conditions), an open porosity of 60%, a fibre saturation point of 0.25 kg/kg and a saturation moisture content of 1.60 kg/kg.[9] Scots Pine has also been widely planted in New Zealand and much of the colder regions of North America; it was one of the first trees introduced to North America, in about 1600.[20] It is listed as an invasive species in some areas there, including Ontario,[21] Michigan[22] and Wisconsin.[23] It has been widely used in the United States for the Christmas tree trade, and was one of the most popular Christmas trees from the 1950s through the 1980s. It remains popular for that usage, though it has been eclipsed in popularity, by such species as Fraser Fir, Douglas-fir, and others. Despite its invasiveness in parts of eastern North America, Scots Pine does not often grow well there, partly due to climate and soil differences between its native habitat and that of North America, and partly due to damage by pests and diseases; the tree often grows in a twisted, haphazard manner if not tended to (as they are in the Christmas tree trade).[3][24] Scots Pines may be killed by the pine wood nematode, which causes pine wilt disease. The nematode most often attacks trees that are at least ten years old and often kills invaded trees within a few weeks spotted in PNPGerês in a mountain track.It's a pine species,i was nor able to take photos of the pine cones it was to far

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Thanks NatralList for one more id

thanks Emma :)

Hema  Shah
Hema Shah 10 years ago

I have seen similar cones here. Trying to recollect he name!!

Hema  Shah
Hema Shah 10 years ago

The cones are very beautiful. When they open up ,they look like a flower!

Hema  Shah
Hema Shah 10 years ago

Where is Natralist ?

I upload two more pictures,of the leafes and the cones,new and old

i see,luckely is in a place near the road where we pass when we go to Gerês so i will have the oportunity to gom there again and make a few more shoot near of the pine cones and of the leafs and of the bark ,like tht w'll have a proper id :)

Hema  Shah
Hema Shah 10 years ago

Natralist,we have Lodge Pole Pines which look like this.
Pines are very difficult to ID!

i know by seeing other times in other places,that this pine tree as the needles very soft,i never remarked if there where 2 or 3,another thing is the redish colour of the bark


Spotted on Aug 21, 2012
Submitted on Sep 15, 2012

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