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Trifoliate orange

Poncirus trifoliata


Poncirus trifoliata is recognisable by the large 3–5 cm thorns on the shoots, and its deciduous leaves with three (or rarely, five) leaflets, typically with the middle leaflet 3–5 cm long, and the two side leaflets 2–3 cm long. The flowers are white, with pink stamens, 3–5 cm in diameter, larger than those of true citrus but otherwise closely resembling them, except that the scent is much less pronounced than with true citrus. As with true citrus, the leaves give off a spicy smell when crushed. The fruits are green, ripening to yellow, and 3–4 cm in diameter, resembling a small orange, but with a finely downy surface. They are very bitter, are not edible fresh, but can be made into marmalade, and when dried and powdered, they can be used as a condiment. Trifoliate orange is a member of the family Rutaceae, closely related to Citrus, and sometimes included in that genus, being sufficiently closely related to allow it to be used as a rootstock for Citrus. It differs from Citrus in having deciduous, compound leaves, and pubescent (downy) fruit.


It is native to northern China up into Korea. The plant is fairly hardy (USDA zone 5) and will tolerate moderate frost and snow, making a large shrub or small tree 4–8 m tall. Because of the relative hardiness of Poncirus, citrus grafted onto it are usually hardier than when grown on their own roots. This one was photographed along Cliatt Creek at Mistletoe State Park near Appling, GA. It was likely a border plant for a very old home site.


It is also known as Hardy Orange. The fruits of Poncirus trifoliata are widely used in Oriental medicine as a remedy for allergic inflammation. Thanks to Sarah in the Woods for the identification and pointing out that it is used as a border plant. Thanks to gatorfellows for identifying it as a Category 3 invasive plant in Georgia.

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Trifoliate orange
Poncirus trifoliata Trifoliate orange

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gatorfellows 6 years ago

Trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata is a Category 3 on GA invasive species list

sarah in the woods
sarah in the woods 6 years ago

Planted by pioneers as a barrier plant. Can also be used to make marmalade

Spotted by

Georgia, USA

Spotted on Sep 29, 2013
Submitted on Feb 8, 2014

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