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Ostriches usually weigh from 63 to 145 kilograms (140–320 lb), Ostriches of the East African race (S. c. massaicus) averaged 115 kg (250 lb) in males and 100 kg (220 lb) in females, while the nominate subspecies was found to average 111 kg (240 lb) in unsexed adults. Exceptional male ostriches (in the nominate subspecies) have been weighing up to 156.8 kg (346 lb). At sexual maturity (two to four years), male ostriches can be from 2.1 to 2.8 m (6 ft 11 in to 9 ft 2 in) in height, while female ostriches range from 1.7 to 2 m (5 ft 7 in to 6 ft 7 in) tall.New chicks are fawn with dark brown spots. During the first year of life, chicks grow about 25 cm (10 in) per month. At one year of age, ostriches weigh around 45 kilograms (100 lb). Their lifespan is up to 40 or 45 years. The feathers of adult males are mostly black, with white primaries and a white tail. However, the tail of one subspecies is buff. Females and young males are greyish-brown and white. The head and neck of both male and female ostriches is nearly bare, with a thin layer of down. The skin of the female's neck and thighs is pinkish gray while the male's is blue-gray, gray or pink dependent on subspecies. The long neck and legs keep their head up to 2.8 m (9 ft) above the ground, and their eyes are said to be the largest of any land vertebrate – 50 mm (2.0 in) in diameter; they can therefore perceive predators at a great distance. The eyes are shaded from sun light falling from above.However, the head and bill are relatively small for the birds' huge size, with the latter measuring 12 to 14.3 cm (4.7 to 5.6 in).