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This is a female Lichen Katydid, with almost 80mm long - males are smaller - and since 2001, when I started to observe and to photograph insects, it was the only female of this species which I have found.
With the help of experts in suborder Ensifera, I had got indication that it would be of the Machimoides genus and later, of the Machima genus, but also in the opinion of many authorities on the subject, seems to be consensus that these two genus could be only one and so, they need be revised.
But there are little information about this specie, and searching the internet, the best I found, I'm sharing in the sources of reference included here.
1 - Machima hygracantha; holotype of species Apolinaria hygracantha (Karsch, 1896):
2 - Article by HOLGER BRAUN - The Little Lichen Dragon - ZOOTAXA (with photos):
3 - INSECTOLOGIA - Esperança do Líquen em Santa Catarina (Portuguese - with photos)
I found this Katydid in the morning of May 7, 2008, at 9:55 (-3 GMT), in the Atlantic Forest, a few minutes after it has copulated, what can be concluded by the presence of the male spermatophore in its genitals.
The town of the coordinates that I gave for search, is not DUQUE DE CAXIAS, as reports the search map in this page, but PETRÓPOLIS.