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The Indian giant squirrel spends most of its time high in the tree canopy and is active during the day. It has dorsal coloration that varies from deep red to brown, the ventral fur is white. They have short, round ears, a broadened hand with an expanded inner paw for gripping, and large, powerful claws used for gripping tree bark and branches. Females can be distinguished from males by their three sets of mammae.
The major threats to the Indian giant squirrel are habitat loss due to agricultural expansion and over-hunting.