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American Toad

Anaxyrus americanus


American toads have short legs, stout bodies, and thick skins with noticeable warts. These warts can be colored red and yellow. The warty skin contains many glands that produce a poisonous milky fluid, providing these toads with excellent protection from many of their predators. This poison is only harmful if it is swallowed or if it gets in the eyes, but it can make many animals very sick. (Dickerson, 1906; Le Clere, 2000; Matson, 2002; Oliver, 1955) The skin color of American toads is normally a shade of brown, but it can also be red with light patches, olive, or gray. The bellies are a white or yellow color. Toad skin color changes depending on temperature, humidity, and stress. The color change ranges from yellow to brown to black. American toads have four toes on each front leg and five toes connected together by a webbing on each hind leg. The pupils of American toads are oval and black with a circle of gold around them.


American toads require a semi-permanent freshwater pond or pool for their early development. They also require dense patches of vegetation, for cover and hunting grounds. Given these two things and a supply of insects for food, American toads can live almost everywhere, ranging from forests to backyards. They are common in gardens and agricultural fields. During daylight hours they seek cover beneath porches, under boardwalks, flat stones, boards, logs, wood piles, or other cover. When cold weather comes, these toads dig backwards into their summer homes or may choose another site in which to hibernate. (Le Clere, 2000; Lerner, June 13 1998; Matson, 2002; Rakestraw, 1998)


Found this fellow by our front steps at night. It is a darker color than I normally see.

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1 Comment

PatrickPhoebus 5 years ago

What kind

Spotted by

Tennessee, USA

Spotted on Jul 25, 2016
Submitted on Jul 27, 2016

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