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According to J.D. Roberts: "There are no 100% consistent diagnostic characteristics in wing maculation or spots/no spots on the patagia (the "collar"), to reliably distinguish nais/carlotta/phalerata/vittata. The only full-proof method is dissection and examination of genitalia (the exception is in male phalerata, in which the valve is easily distinguished by its longer, up-curved apex. So one could brush the scales away from the last sternite and see it without dissection. The nais/carlotta/vittata group have rather blunt and rounded apices of the valve.) ...using the sum of typical (although not necessarily diagnostic) characteristics, can allow for a reasonably probable species ID."