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Jayson, this caterpillar belongs to the Papilo (Mormon) family. The orange thing that produces the bad smell is known as Osmeterium . . . from the Greek word for smell.
Bellow is a link by noted scholar Keith Wolfe on this : https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=....
I case you are not able to view this below is the text from his notes :
Osmeterium . . . from the Greek word for smell.
The swallowtail family of butterflies (Papilionidae) is comprised of about 550 species and traditionally divided into three subfamilies: the very primitive Mexican Baroniinae; the northern/montane Apollos, Festoons, and the like (Parnassiinae); and the worldwide, though mainly tropical, Jays, Helens and Mormons, Birdwings, etc. (Papilioninae). The color and patterning of these larvae vary among species and instars – often resembling bird poop (cryptic) or being snake-like in appearance (mimetic) – but whatever their differences, ALL swallowtail caterpillars possess an osmeterium, a forked, fleshy, eversible gland immediately above the head capsule. When sufficiently disturbed, larvae assume a defensive posture and extrude this organ, which is some shade of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, white, or even black, and bathed in a liquid with a faint to intense odor.
Behavioral studies show that the osmeterial secretions of younger cats are effective at deterring arthropods such as ants, mantids, and spiders, while extrusion of the osmeterium by late-stage larvae probably transmits a direct or indirect (learned) chemical warning of distastefulness to foraging birds. Less clear is the relative importance of host phytochemistry, certainly a major factor with Birdwing caterpillars and their toxic Aristolochia foodplants, and any perceived "threat" display. Nonetheless, it is interesting to note that in Papilio species where a dramatic change in larval appearance occurs between the fourth (L4) and fifth (L5) stadia, there is strong evidence suggesting an equally major shift in the dominant chemical component of the osmeterial exudates: terpenoids when cats are L4 (and presumably younger), aliphatic acids and esters when L5. Although the dynamics are poorly understood, swallowtail larvae are constantly responding to a complex change in predation pressures (invertebrate versus vertebrate) as they struggle to reach maturity in a hostile environment.
Remarkably, numerous caterpillars in the Nymphalidae and at least some Pieridae and Hesperiidae (not to mention moth families) are now known to possess an analogous/homologous prosternal gland, which is located midventrally between the mouthparts and first pair of true legs; that is, exactly opposite where osmeteria are found. See this extraordinary clip of a Blue-spotted Crow larva and the discovery of its so-called "adenosma" by Dr. Horace Tan in Singapore: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAbBFlGKB... Thus, while osmeteria are obviously impressive, such a prothoracic chemical defense is clearly not unique to swallowtail cats, and in fact is almost certainly the lepidopteran rule rather than the exception.
ChunXingWong,thanks for your kind comments. I liked your moth collection too ! The butterflies unlike moths are a bit restless hence a little difficult to approach. I am posting a link of a friend from Singapore who has written a amazing guide to butterfly photography. Hope the guide will help you ! All the best and Happy Butterflying ! Hope to see your butterfly pictures soon. Here's the link :
Hi Willie !
Apologies for the delayed response. Here is some basic information of the Pit viper.
Name: Malabar Pit Viper
Binomial Nomenclature: Trimeresurus malabaricus
Size: They grow till a maximum size of 80 cm.
Colour:Green in colour with light yellow and black spots
Habitat: Peninsula of India
Food: Feeds on rodents, frogs etc.
Range: Southern India
Behaviour : They are nocturnal and usually inactive in the day, sometimes seen basking on rocks or trees near streams.
There is some more info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trimeresuru...