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Milind Pandit Eastern quoll
Eastern quoll commented on by Milind Pandit Tasmania, Australia9 years ago

Excellent Spotting !

Milind Pandit Caterpillar
Caterpillar commented on by Milind Pandit Maharashtra, India9 years ago

Moth Caterpillar

Milind Pandit Striped Hawkmoth
Striped Hawkmoth commented on by Milind Pandit Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India9 years ago

Lovely Find Sachin !

Milind Pandit Great Mormon Caterpillar
Great Mormon Caterpillar commented on by Milind Pandit Bandung, Indonesia9 years ago

Jayson, this caterpillar belongs to the Papilo (Mormon) family. The orange thing that produces the bad smell is known as Osmeterium . . . from the Greek word for smell.

Bellow is a link by noted scholar Keith Wolfe on this :

I case you are not able to view this below is the text from his notes :

Osmeterium . . . from the Greek word for smell.

The swallowtail family of butterflies (Papilionidae) is comprised of about 550 species and traditionally divided into three subfamilies: the very primitive Mexican Baroniinae; the northern/montane Apollos, Festoons, and the like (Parnassiinae); and the worldwide, though mainly tropical, Jays, Helens and Mormons, Birdwings, etc. (Papilioninae). The color and patterning of these larvae vary among species and instars – often resembling bird poop (cryptic) or being snake-like in appearance (mimetic) – but whatever their differences, ALL swallowtail caterpillars possess an osmeterium, a forked, fleshy, eversible gland immediately above the head capsule. When sufficiently disturbed, larvae assume a defensive posture and extrude this organ, which is some shade of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, white, or even black, and bathed in a liquid with a faint to intense odor.

Behavioral studies show that the osmeterial secretions of younger cats are effective at deterring arthropods such as ants, mantids, and spiders, while extrusion of the osmeterium by late-stage larvae probably transmits a direct or indirect (learned) chemical warning of distastefulness to foraging birds. Less clear is the relative importance of host phytochemistry, certainly a major factor with Birdwing caterpillars and their toxic Aristolochia foodplants, and any perceived "threat" display. Nonetheless, it is interesting to note that in Papilio species where a dramatic change in larval appearance occurs between the fourth (L4) and fifth (L5) stadia, there is strong evidence suggesting an equally major shift in the dominant chemical component of the osmeterial exudates: terpenoids when cats are L4 (and presumably younger), aliphatic acids and esters when L5. Although the dynamics are poorly understood, swallowtail larvae are constantly responding to a complex change in predation pressures (invertebrate versus vertebrate) as they struggle to reach maturity in a hostile environment.

Remarkably, numerous caterpillars in the Nymphalidae and at least some Pieridae and Hesperiidae (not to mention moth families) are now known to possess an analogous/homologous prosternal gland, which is located midventrally between the mouthparts and first pair of true legs; that is, exactly opposite where osmeteria are found. See this extraordinary clip of a Blue-spotted Crow larva and the discovery of its so-called "adenosma" by Dr. Horace Tan in Singapore: Thus, while osmeteria are obviously impressive, such a prothoracic chemical defense is clearly not unique to swallowtail cats, and in fact is almost certainly the lepidopteran rule rather than the exception.

Milind Pandit Striped Albatros
Striped Albatros commented on by Milind Pandit Mumbai, Maharashtra, India9 years ago

ChunXingWong,thanks for your kind comments. I liked your moth collection too ! The butterflies unlike moths are a bit restless hence a little difficult to approach. I am posting a link of a friend from Singapore who has written a amazing guide to butterfly photography. Hope the guide will help you ! All the best and Happy Butterflying ! Hope to see your butterfly pictures soon. Here's the link :

Milind Pandit Robber Fly
Robber Fly commented on by Milind Pandit Mumbai, Maharashtra, India9 years ago

Yes Smith, the Robber fly is having a honey bee for breakfast ! Thanks !

Milind Pandit Tamil Yeomen
Tamil Yeomen commented on by Milind Pandit Davanagere, Karnataka, India9 years ago

Yes stunning colors ! Was lucky to get a fresh specimen ! Thanks !

Milind Pandit Malabar Pit Viper
Malabar Pit Viper commented on by Milind Pandit Panaji, Goa, India9 years ago

Hi Willie !

Apologies for the delayed response. Here is some basic information of the Pit viper.

Name: Malabar Pit Viper

Binomial Nomenclature: Trimeresurus malabaricus

Family: Viperidae

Size: They grow till a maximum size of 80 cm.
Colour:Green in colour with light yellow and black spots

Habitat: Peninsula of India

Food: Feeds on rodents, frogs etc.

Range: Southern India

Behaviour : They are nocturnal and usually inactive in the day, sometimes seen basking on rocks or trees near streams.

There is some more info :



Milind Pandit Grass Demon
Grass Demon commented on by Milind Pandit Mumbai, Maharashtra, India9 years ago

Thanks for bringing it to my notice Maria. Have made the addition.

Milind Pandit Eyelash Pixie Cup
Eyelash Pixie Cup commented on by Milind Pandit Goa, India9 years ago

Thanks Mark !

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