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I'm pretty sure this cocoon was made with silk and fine shavings extracted from the surface of the giant bamboo trunk. There are several of these cocoons in almost every bamboo trunk, and where it was made there is always a small, lightly scraped area around it.
Rural area of southeastern Brazil.
EDIT: After a few days, I captured the little nest and waited until it hatched. Behold, it worked! 5 new little wasps in the world! New photos added (photos 2 to 6). ~2mm in length.