Orange fungus growing through the lichen.
Growing through some foliose lichens on a maple tree in a suburban yard
Someone in a lichen forum told me that it is likely not a lichenicolous fungus as I originally thought, but rather that it is associated with lichen because "the lichen modifies the environment in a way that suits the fungus. But that the fungus is not living on or in the lichen. It seems to push between the plicate lobes of Dirinaria and other foliose sp. just as your images show."