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This is the remains of a parasitized cecropia moth pupa that I found inside of a cocoon.
Parasitoids are a significant problem for cecropia moths. Some species of wasps and flies lay their eggs on young cecropia caterpillars. The eggs hatch into larvae, which then consume the internal organs and muscles of the caterpillar. The parasitoid pest releases chemicals that actually override the regulatory mechanisms of the caterpillar, and once the parasitoid has grown enough, it induces the caterpillar to pupate. Once the caterpillar pupates, the parasitoid larvae themselves pupate and kill the cecropia pupa. When they are ready to emerge as adults, they make a hole in the cocoon, and fly away.
I found this cocoon attached to some vines on the edge of a meadow.